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A technique designed to foster group productivity by encouraging interacting group members to express their ideas in a noncritical fashion


Organization characterized by hierarchical chains of command and power, each with its own separate function. The organization is governed by rules accepted by the members in order for efficient mass administration. [IRW] A formal organization with defined objectives, a hierarchy of specialized roles and systematic processes of direction and administration. Bureaucracy is found in earlier times in history, for example in administration of agricultural irrigation systems, the Roman army, the Catholic church, but it becomes most prominent in the large-scale administration of agencies of the modern state and modern business corporations. [DP]